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Cross-cutting research issues Cross-disciplinary research is the prerequisite for success. This was a strong message from the Copenhagen Research Forum. Future European Research should be planned and performed in a context with a genuinely holistic approach with inter- and multidisciplinary research groups working in Europe jointly with the rest of the world. This will require structuring the programme to stimulate and encourage research cooperation between the research communities contributing to each of the individual societal challenges. One mechanism for doing so could be the establish- ment of a programme element with the specifi c purpose of pursuing research on the interconnections between the challenges. The researchers must be the very best, and they must work together across research areas and across boundaries. The transition to a sustainable, healthy and wealthy European society demands research between the identifi ed six challenges and bridging across the different areas. A new concept including viewing the whole area on a holistic basis must be developed and the programmes should be designed to meet these needs. HEALTH, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE AND WELLBEING index of Europeans. This proposal includes a vision that integrates a Basic, translational, and clinical research are the foundation of lifestyle of healthy habits with an environment that promotes healthy European health systems and services, and the social, cultural, living by encouraging exercise and making healthy food affordable. and environmental factors that affect health need to be linked in This requires cross-disciplinary work not only with architects and a multidisciplinary approach. An important solution for the health designers but also with the food and beverage industry. Many of our challenges Europe faces involves rethinking conventional bio- current health problems stem from lifestyle factors greatly infl uenced medical practices and converting to personalised medicine. This by marketing and industry. More work must be done with the food paradigm shift is dependent upon obtaining a detailed description industry to help persuade them to make healthier food by reducing of individual biological variation in connection with the environ- the amount of saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and salt. The escalating mental, societal, and lifestyle factors that infl uence the develop- incidence of chronic infl ammatory conditions and allergy observed in ment of disease. One specifi c goal involves dealing with the huge industrialised countries is clearly linked to environmental and lifestyle health problems related to overweight and obesity. Prevention factors, though somewhat mediated through gene-environment inter- is of obvious importance and there is an urgent need for further actions. Research in infectious diseases and vaccines are central due research into how physical activity and training, in addition to to the changes in climate and the structure of society. nutrition, can prevent the steadily increasing average body mass ENERGY Structural andadditives)Neuroscience (appetiteFOODpersonalised foodand allergy -Nuclear power,Makinghealthy foodSave energyMore biking and walking HEALTH elderly Rising sea level Migration, malnutrition, fear Climate change Infectious diseases, vaccines CLIMATE 15


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