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applied must facilitate and promote the active participation of SMEs as well as larger companies in research projects. Also, the SME defi nition for the agrifood sector should be adapted to 500 FTE instead of 250. Processing of food and agricultural products should take a full life cycle approach into use, integrating and utilising resources to the fullest, including: •Minimal energy consumption •Consumer preference, acceptance, and needs •Engineering of desired product attributes •Mathematical models for process design, selection of proper process parameters and optimal operation of processes Researchers of this fi eld should work closely with technology develop- ers, environmentalists, industry, policymakers and growers to evaluate the relevance and estimated impact of the proposed projects – and any new technologies and machineries developed should be scruti- nised for effi cacy, cost-effi ciency and environmental performance and impacts, including effects on up- or downstream activities. Advances in consumer research, biotechnology, genomics and related fi elds of research, bioinformatics, systems biology and nanotechnology will provide the agricultural and food industry with powerful information and tools to increase food security, improve the nutritional value of foods (e.g. increase nutrients and bioavail- ability) and mitigate risks. It is important that Europe adopts and implements these emerging technologies for suitable applications in the agricultural and food industry, including the production of bio- energy and chemical feedstock. The same applies to applications in the feed industry, where the supply of more, healthier, safer and sustainable feed and animal nutrition products will be of increasing importance – not only for yield and output purposes, but also for consumer health and animal welfare. BUSINESS MODELS By combining food and bioscience research disciplines with social, marketing, and economic sciences, the European food and agroindustry sector would also benefi t from the understanding and implementation of a more vertical stratifi cation (business model) rather than the prevailing horizontal model with minimal interaction between primary production and food processing actors. In a verti- cal approach, primary production using new agricultural systems and crops, animals and microbes tailor-made for new value chains will be integrated parts of the business structure, supporting the 34


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