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ABSTRACT CONTINUED Meeting the basic energy needs of the world population, as a Horizon 2020 priorities should build on: (1) a revised SET-Plan whole, implies a signifi cant, continued increase in energy demand based on a thorough review at the beginning of Horizon 2020, over the coming decades. Achieving this and, in parallel, drasti- including a critical update of the road maps based on ambitious cally reducing greenhouse gas emissions to acceptable levels, are but realistic scenarios for the development and deployment of tech- contradictory challenges that require urgent and vigilant societal nologies, and (2) a complementary systemic approach to combine response. The efforts and changes toward a sustainable energy technological, economic, political, social and cultural research to system are enormous and require a series of aligned activities over facilitate the transformation of the energy system as a whole. Col- a long period of time. The radical transition from fossil to renew- laboration of social sciences and humanities with “hard sciences” able energy needs new and much increased effort by many stake- must be recognised as necessary and organised and funded ac- holders, including suitable political frameworks and incentives. cordingly to meet the challenges at system level. A paradigm change is required that moves from energy systems based on fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) to more sustainable sys- More effi cient innovation programmes and new instruments are tems based on renewable (or nuclear) energy sources. The change needed to couple educational efforts with research and innova- must be sustainable with regard to ecology, security of supply, tion to ensure that enough trained talent is available to realise the and economy – both locally and worldwide. The change driven by ambitious roll-out scenarios for the different energy technologies, adoption of new policies and actions is urgent. According to the and for the transformation of the energy system as a whole. Direct recent IEA World Energy Outlook 2011, the door is rapidly closing mobilisation of universities in addressing systemic challenges should (by 2017) for limiting global temperature increase to 2°C, as four be given high priority. Mobility of scientists and students among fi fths of total energy-related CO emissions are already “locked–in” 2 research institutions and industry should be pursued through new by existing power plants and factories. types of fl exible grants. Transfer of knowledge from universities to students and companies must be made in a more effi cient way. Europe has taken the fi rst steps to substantially reduce its ecologi- Public technology procurement policies could be used to shorten cal impact and create an environmental friendly and economically the time from research to market. sustainable economic basis for lasting growth. This is most recently documented by the Energy 2050 Road Map, the Horizon 2020 Main criteria for selection of European projects in Horizon 2020 proposal and the SET-Plan. To fulfi l the ambitious 2020 and 2050 are scientifi c excellence, society needs and European competitive- greenhouse gas reduction targets set by the European Union, ness combined with more focus on outcomes and impacts. The energy research plays a fundamental role as a source of needed composition of research consortia should give high priority to the insight and new technologies. Energy research has to enable and quality of partners and their openness to new partners. Openness, underpin a much more rapid transformation of European and dialogue, and competition are the proper values to ensure quality global energy systems than is the case today. It should be given and rate of progress. higher priority over the next decades, not least in the implementa- tion of Horizon 2020. Energy research should be a more integral VISION part of the green energy economy, i.e. combining innovation, Secure, clean, and effi cient energy is rightly chosen as a primary know-how and technology to solve energy and climate issues. goal in the EU research agenda for 2014-2020. Much depends This will generate sustainable economic growth and create new, on the success of the Horizon 2020 programme in effi ciently ad- innovative workplaces and jobs. Countries need to focus on low dressing these challenges if the EU is to become self suffi cient with carbon technologies specifi c to their geographic location, climate, secure, clean, reliable and affordable energy midway through state of the economy, access to energy resources, and exploration this century. People’s wellbeing, industrial competitiveness, and abilities. The methods of the integration of national energy systems the overall functioning of society are dependent on a safe, secure, in pan-European and global energy systems need to be developed and affordable energy supply. The transition towards a sustainable in parallel. energy era is recognised as a common goal of European nations, as climate and energy challenges indeed are common European and global challenges. ENERGY 41


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