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Technologies such as energy storage, innovative thermal (heating This would also mean leaning more towards the end-use side of the and cooling) energy technologies, polygeneration, geothermal en- energy chain than the energy production side. ergy (including heat pumps), and materials for energy applications should also be developed and supported. If enough resources are SET-Plan Energy Industry Initiatives (EIIs) are targeted to realise sever- made available, the full spectrum of technologies can be pursued. al new large low-carbon demonstrations and full-scale power plants Otherwise, prioritisation is in place to ensure critical mass in the before 2020, including CCS demonstrators. A main objective is to selected areas. The EC efforts to engage other fi nancial resources identify and verify low-carbon technologies suited for commercial like the EIB and the cohesion funds, as well as national and private mass production, moving European industry towards the technology funding, should be encouraged. front and strengthening its global competitiveness. Though it is im- portant to develop products together with industry, this seldom solves It is vital that the SET-Plan strategy is kept live through a thorough the real problems, such as fi nding new electro-catalysts cheaper review at the beginning of Horizon 2020, including a critical than platinum, and many other fundamental obstacles to cost reduc- update of road maps based on ambitious but realistic scenarios for tion. It would be excellent if this could be done in cooperation with the development and deployment of technologies. Nuclear energy industry, but such research is too risky to expect industry to fund it. To (fi ssion and fusion) should be included in such a critical review. So deliver the technological progress required, appropriate framework far, the SET-Plan has focused on ten important energy technologies. conditions, e.g. a strong basic and applied research foundation, In Horizon 2020 this needs to be supplemented with crosscutting close links between industry and research, and strong incentives for efforts with systemic and sometimes holistic points of departure. research and market introduction, are needed. The focus of European energy research programmes should support research at the pre-competitive phase, as well as the integration The role of basic energy science and of university research for of research with higher education and industry. By focusing on Europe needs clarifi cation in the SET-Plan. There is also a need pre-competitive research, European energy research funding will to follow up on higher education. Linking university excellence to support the weakest part of the innovation chain, so the societal the SET-Plan through e.g. the European Platform of Universities and economic return on investment should be correspondingly engaged in Energy Research (EPUE) and EERA Joint Programmes high. European energy research can be of high value in the fi eld could provide major additional value in both addressing work- of standardisation and other crosscutting issues, where common force talent needs and research excellence aspects, in particular procedures simplify the boundary conditions for European industry. education of the energy scientist and engineer of tomorrow. More With early standards European companies will be better prepared emphasis should be devoted to generic technologies like energy for global competition. materials and energy storage. It is important to emphasise that en- ergy research is a “no regret” option of energy policy – all scientifi c There is huge potential for energy savings in the industry, including and technological advances are helpful as they are target-oriented the construction industry as well as in the built environment and towards a sustainable future. households. Research is called for on technical solutions, as well as on the socio-economic aspects of how the energy market should Technological research needs to be accompanied by technology be changed so that it would be in the interest of the big electricity assessment and systems analysis, keeping an eye on the overall generating companies to save primary energy. Combined heat, system and on societal aspects, like public acceptance. Systems power, and cooling production is, in the overall poly-generation analysis also helps to investigate and optimise different paths for perspective, one effective way for primary energy saving. This pri- the future and may thus provide valuable advice to the political sys- mary energy saving is not used widely enough in Europe and has tem. More interdisciplinary work is needed on energy supply and untapped potential. It is not so much a question of having the right demand to link technical, natural, social, and economic sciences. technologies but applying the technologies right. Problems should be identifi ed through close collaboration with industry and in coherence with European energy policies. Applied The importance of energy transformation technologies has to and industrial research has to be linked more tightly to basic sci- be stressed throughout the Horizon 2020 actions. It would be ence and to academic teaching to ensure future European industrial worthwhile to add cross-disciplinary horizontal elements that are competitiveness. Universities have untapped potential for advance- not technology specifi c, but could cover also, e.g. environment, ments in both energy science and innovation by an enhanced business, socio-economic, and user aspects. In line with this, more engagement of both professors and students. emphasis could be given to social, system, and user-driven innova- tions, in contrast to the main focus on technology-driven innovation. ENERGY 43


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