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This could They are usually expensive and less innovative. Demonstration pro- reduce jects should be developed and supported by fundamental research innovation studies, including simulation of expected system operation. Every potential and demonstration project should be accompanied by detailed funda- may not yield mental and applied research studies. the best return on research funding. Ideally, industry should pose the questions, while universities and Effi cient manage- research centres should try to answer them, keeping close contact ment and control with industry, but not necessarily always working in projects together of large integrated with industry partners. Effi cient research has clear objectives, es- projects is demanding, sential partnership, and a demanding fi nal customer: someone who and midsize collabora- needs the results that the research may provide. Europe has many tive research projects (EU renowned scientists working in physics, physical or biological chem- contribution up to e.g. € 5 istry, and electrical engineering fi elds. They could form powerful new m) have often proven far more cross-disciplinary teams. The dialogue should also include energy effi cient and innovative. The providers, regulators, energy users and those affected by energy trend in management should be consumption and generation. We need to employ a novel procedure a move toward joint programs in of inclusive governance, i.e. forms of cooperation that link the main pursuit of clearly-defi ned strategic actors in science, politics, economics, and civil society. goals, combined with more emphasis Demonstrator projects and living labs for medium-scale testing of on results and impact. smart grids and smart cities offer excellent crossing points for the dia- logue between industry and academia as well as other stakeholders. The success of the EIIs also depends critically on new research and tech- From a research / university perspective, exchange of knowledge nology input. There is, however, a and experience across nations and research disciplines is highly risk that the large EII demonstration needed. Improved mobility among European scientists may be projects (of several hundred million a critical element in successful implementation of the SET-Plan. euro each) may be locked-in on Europe should also take an international lead in physics/chemistry, existing technologies, largely de- economics, and in selected parts of energy related research, in par- coupled from relevant advances ticular material sciences and performance/economic modelling of in science and technology sustainable energy systems. University consortia could take on the towards 2020. Avoiding this challenge to lead large-scale problem-oriented modelling efforts. and meeting EII needs will require new mechanisms for Top-priority criteria for selection of European projects in Horizon implementing Horizon 2020 2020 are scientifi c excellence, society needs, and European R&D results and innovative competitiveness, combined with criteria for European cooperation, concepts for ongoing EII exchange of knowledge, know-how, and expertise and matching projects. This should be ad- project partners. Coordination of research efforts can be achieved dressed in Horizon 2020 by alignment of European research strategies by all relevant stake- and the activities should holders like the European Commission, member states, industry, be focused more on the research organisations, universities, regulators, and users. This most promising and most could lead to a more harmonised European as well as national and cost effi cient renewable industry implementation of these research strategies. energy sources. Large size projects and dem- The urgent need for progress in energy technology should be onstration projects recognised, and available public resources should be increased. should be limited to a Big societal issues need big research programmes and research few cases only. infrastructures to address and provide the needed answers. ENERGY 47


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