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scientifi c understanding of the complex functioning of the transport system. A hugely important role for EU’s research strategy is to look at the medium and long term (10-40 years), as this is usually beyond the horizon of transport industry and national govern- ments. Therefore, a new joint European, strategic transport research programme cutting across themes and national priorities and fully aligned with the European transport policy for the period 2013- 2020 is both justifi able and necessary. Hence, it is welcomed and fully justifi ed that smart, green and integrated transport is put forward as one of the prioritised six societal challenges in Horizon 2020. In addition, sustainable solutions to the transport challenge will also have a positive infl uence on every one of the other fi ve grand societal challenges. NEEDS AND SOLUTIONS Main challenges for a smart, green and integrated transport sector and fi elds where R&D&I is needed as an essential part of the solutions. THE CHALLENGES FOR TRANSPORT RESEARCH In general, the smart, green and integrated transport section in the current proposal for Horizon 2020 refl ects well the main aspects of the challenges of the transport sector. The set out objectives for the trans- port system are ambitious and clearly consider the goals of the 2011 White Paper on Transport as well as the policy goals of the Europe 2020 strategy. Substantial research is necessary to fulfi l the objectives and it will require that the transport challenge has a particularly central position in the actual implementation of Horizon 2020. In the past, confl icts between policy goals, e.g. between mobility needs and environmental concerns, have been a main barrier for taking strong and outreaching political decisions. The majority of specifi c research activities highlighted under each of the four sub- headings (effi cient and green transport; better and safer mobility; global leadership1; and policymaking) has a crosscutting nature in the sense that they can contribute to several policy goals. The research strategy for each specifi c activity has to recognise and address such potentially confl icting goals and the resulting ‘implementation gap’ rather than focusing on one or the other. 1 “Global leadership for the European transport industry”, strictly speaking, does not address the societal challenge for transport, but relates to the other specifi c programme on “Industrial leadership and competitive frameworks”. 52


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