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Discrepancies will also exist between the research priorities for will not be suffi cient to tackle congestion in the future. Demand achieving political goals and the immediate interests of industry management and optimising the utilisation of existing network driven by customer demand. Hence, it is equally important to infl u- capacity by widespread use of pricing and ICT will have to play ence private sector R&D&I by communicating clear long-termed a key role along with improving public transport and cross-modal political commitments and by fi rmly implementing incentives that integration. If not, we can end up in the paradoxical situation that will steer the transport industry’s R&D&I in directions underpinning too much transport will hamper our mobility, in particular in and the goals and priorities in Horizon 2020 and accelerate market around major urban areas. implementation of new, innovative solutions. TARGETS FOR GHG REDUCTION REQUIRE RADICAL In addition, the complexity of the transport challenge calls for inten- TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND FACILITATION OF THEIR sifi ed and improved inter-disciplinary cooperation across natural MARKET UPTAKE (GREEN) science, engineering and social sciences, but still based on the Transport is responsible for about a quarter of Europe’s GHG strongest single-disciplinary foundation. emissions; and its share of GHG emissions as well as the absolute amount are rising. The fact that transport depends on (primarily THREE OVERRIDING CHALLENGES imported from abroad) oil products for 96% of its energy needs, TThe range of highly relevant topics for new and further transport only adds to the problem with a view to the world’s shrinking oil research is remarkably broad as refl ected in the Horizon 2020 reserves. The GHG reduction target of 60% in 2050 (with respect documents. With a view to transport’s important role in revitalising to 1990) is ambitious, but the impact assessment of the 2011 White Europe’s competitiveness in the globalised world on the one hand Paper on Transport concluded that it is feasible and at limited and the seriousness of the global warming problem on the other, additional costs. However, reaching the goal depends on intensive there are three absolutely crucial challenges facing the develop- investments in technological research over a broad range so as to ment of a competitive and sustainable transport system which are achieve the breakthroughs as well as the necessary cost reductions particularly hard to solve and where research therefore is an es- of the required radically new solutions, and this applies both to sential part of the solutions: vehicle technologies and to fuel standards. Smart: Congestion due to overexploitation of system capacity; Developing new technological solutions, like electric vehicles, will Green: Greenhouse gas emissions from transport’s oil dependency; have to be closely linked to a better understanding of user behav- Integrated: A modally divided and vulnerable transport system. iour, car buyers’ risk aversion and preferences as well as mobility patterns in general in order to target and accelerate innovation by The three challenges are interrelated in the sense that the solu- ensuring that the novel solutions match the needs and hence can tions to improving mobility by reducing congestion and achieving gain a foothold on the market. Designing and implementing clever fl exible modal integration are constrained by the concern for the regulatory frameworks, including taxation and pricing schemes and climate change problem and vice versa. level playing fi elds, are crucial to pave the way by creating the right incentives for the industry’s R&D&I as well as the decisions of REDUCING CONGESTION BY BETTER UTILISATION OF end users of vehicles of all modes and transport services. EXISTING CAPACITY AND CHANGED MODAL SPLIT (SMART) The desirable economic recovery and revitalisation of the European CUSTOMER-ORIENTED CROSS-MODAL INTEGRATION economy as set out in the Europe 2020 strategy can be expected to AND RESILIENCE (INTEGRATED) revive the demand pressure on the transport system which without The earlier mentioned expectations for increasingly scarce funding demand management and economic incentives will intensify con- for infrastructure improvements highlight the need for cross-modal gestion and eventually severely restrict our mobility and increase integration as a means to improve overall effi cient and sustainable unreliability. This is of course not a new situation; economic pro- mobility rather than effectiveness at modal level. This applies to gress and transport demand have been closely linked for more than both freight and passenger transport as well as for urban, interur- a century. However, projected structural constraints on government ban and intercontinental transport. Concepts such as door-to-door budgets, reinforced by the current debt crisis, as well as limited mobility, seamless connectivity, and global interoperability can con- availability of land and environmental constraints, will probably tribute to developing more customer-oriented services. Deployment constrain infrastructure development in the coming decades. Hence, of robust co-modal systems calls for more advanced transport opti- mainstream transport policy of the past, where growing transport mization methods which have become increasingly more vigorous TRANSPORT demand has simply been accommodated by extending capacity, as modern ICT such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), 53


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