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Major technological shifts will typically take place over decades GLOBAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT due to the lifetime of vehicles and infrastructure. For example All three above-mentioned overriding challenges also relates to electric or fuel cell vehicles could very well be pivotal to achieve a long-distance freight transport which call for further R&D&I. Mari- 60% cut in GHG emissions from transport but may take 20 years time transport is an essential pre-requisite for the globalised world for them to obtain a major market share. Meanwhile efforts to make as international shipping caries some 90% of world trade volumes. conventional cars gradually more energy effi cient will postpone the Still, the vast majority of the goods are transported over land as point in time where radically alternative technology may become the last and/or fi rst part of the door-to-door shipment. Improved competitive and gain a foothold in the market. Furthermore, there effi ciency requires a highly fl exible and reliable multimodal integra- are transition costs, e.g. for fuel infrastructure and gaining customer tion, also in order to reduce congestion in the hinterland to the confi dence, involved in moving away from a well-established, harbours. Further, although sea transport is very energy effi cient mature technology. the big volumes imply that international shipping accounts for 3% of global CO2-emission and the alternatives to the current oil URBAN MOBILITY dependency is far from ready. Apart from GHG emissions the majority of the negative impacts from transport occur in and around major urban areas where the A ZERO VISION ON ROAD FATALITIES REQUIRES majority, and an increasing share, of Europe’s population live. A PARADIGM SHIFT TO A ’SAFE SYSTEM’ APPROACH Yet, high mobility and easy access to a variety of activities are The 2011 Transport White Paper aims for halving road essential features in the attractiveness of cities. Hence, reaching casualties by 2020 and moving close to zero fatalities in the goal of the 2011 Transport White Paper to halve the use of road transport by 2050. Due to the impact on society it conventionally-fuelled cars in urban transport by 2030 and con- would be of interest to include (serious) injuries in further tribute to more liveable cities will require sticks and carrots, i.e. policies and research as well, and thus link road safety an urban road pricing scheme accompanied by more competitive with health policies. Although we have observed a public transport and facilities for cycling and walking. As a part dramatic decline in fatalities and mortality rates in EU of this ICT and real-time traffi c data will have to be deployed in member states, it cannot be expected that traditional advanced systems which are not yet mature enough for smart pric- safety measures are likely to reach a zero level. ing and personalised travel information. Reaching ambitious targets such as ‘move close to zero’ requires a paradigm shift and a Safe System Optimal long-term solutions also call for integration of research and approach is considered to be a very promising innovation in the interaction between infrastructure development and such transformation. The road system should be spatial planning, where travel behaviour and redesigned taking into account the fallible and pricing are at the core, also taking into vulnerable human being. account the future demographic structure of Europe. TRANSPORT 55


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