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•Integrated transport, land use and energy models at European • Getting the prices right by smart pricing. Over the last decade level. There is a huge need to develop further a new class of several cities and countries around Europe have implemented an integrated transport, land use, and energy models at the European ICT-based pricing system for road traffi c to reduce congestion and level. Such models exist already in energy systems research but are pollution. However, although a full national road pricing scheme less common in transport systems research. The European energy with charges varying with when, where and what you drive is gen- system and the European transport system are massively parallel as erally believed to be the solution of the future, it has not been imple- technological systems and fundamentally strategic infrastructures. If mented anywhere yet, among other things due to the technological properly developed, such models can be used to support negotia- uncertainties and political risks involved. The obvious economies tions on investment priorities to mitigate climate change without of scale and user benefi ts of a European-wide compatible system sacrifi cing economic growth. Models are needed for freight as well call for EU leadership in a strategy for research, innovation, and as passenger transport. (H2020: 4.1; 4.4) deployment of a system which is of course more precise and robust. The principal technological challenges have probably now moved BALANCING DEMAND AND CAPACITY beyond research and into the innovation phase, where EU stand- In the coming decades building and enlarging transport infra- ards are important to speed up development. But optimal exploita- structure are likely to be constrained, due to limited government tion of a road charging system by the member states is dependent budgets, limited availability of land and environmental constraints. on intelligently designed, dynamic pricing schemes for freight and Hence, managing transport demand through land use planning passenger transport, including pricing in public transport. For this and economic incentives are likely to be pronounced issues on the purpose substantial research is needed to achieve in-depth knowl- political agenda. Furthermore, demand management and obtaining edge and quantitative explanations in several fi elds ranging from a modal shift in favour of less polluting modes is a precondition e.g. dynamics of network congestion, impacts on supply chains for achieving GHG reduction goals and reducing local air pollu- and distribution systems, wider impacts on land use and the urban tion and noise. Within and across all modes research is needed economy, to implementation paths including incidence, use of rev- to tackle these challenges. Though already many EU research enue, communication and political acceptability in the population. projects have dealt with economic incentives and issues of land use (H2020: 4.1.3; 4.2.1; 4.4) planning, additional research is needed addressing specifi c issues, which also include maritime and air transport. More accurate •Wider economic impacts of major transport infrastructure accounting methods of the wider impacts of European transport investments. In society, there is a general understanding of the infrastructure will also be increasingly important with scare funding importance of transport infrastructure as a precondition for an for transport infrastructure. Examples of relevant research topics effi cient and dynamic economy. Classical cost benefi t analysis within this fi eld are: has developed in recent decades into more advanced appraisal methods that more adequately value time savings (though to a less •Linking land use and transport planning. Short distances between extent for business travel) and encompass environmental and safety and higher densities of housing, offi ces, schools, shopping, and impacts and other derived effects. However, our understanding of recreation centres contribute to solving a range of environmental, how direct benefi ts in terms of high mobility and transport cost sav- climate and spatial problems, because they make it easier to ings transform into industrial competitive ness and economic growth promote public transport, bicycling and walking. Such a develop- is still poor. In particular, how wider economic benefi ts, in terms ment is necessary to achieve the 2011 Transport White Paper goal of complex and diffuse impacts such as agglomeration benefi ts, on urban transport, but is not given much attention in the proposals regional development, and dynamic effects in labour and housing for Horizon 2020. To assist in such a development we need better markets can be measured and included without double counting integration of land use planning and transport planning, and as should be analysed in a European context. (H2020: 4.1.2; 4.4) an input to this, better integration in transport models of household and company localisation decisions and transport behaviour. The GOVERNANCE, FINANCING AND ORGANISATION core questions for research are how to control land use develop- During the past 25 years, so-called new public management (NPM) ment and retrofi t existing urban areas to sustainable transportation; reforms have marked the organisational shaping of the public sec- how to develop attractive mobility solutions bridging between ac- tor, and not least the transport sector. Important features of these cess, choice, and resource effi ciency, and how to manage transport reforms are the unbundling of public sector organisations into cor- infrastructures, traffi c, and environmental qualities in dense, urban poratised units, competition, performance measures, output controls settings? (H2020: 4.1.3; 4.2.1; 4.4) and private sector styles of management. Within transport, these TRANSPORT reforms in particular are visible within railways and public trans- 57


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