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that the railway systems can provide a dependable, green alterna- systems as mechanisms for application of evidence and knowledge tive to other modes. The slow progress of transforming the railway and subsequent implementation in specifi c transport enhancements sector despite strongly stated political commitment calls for more need to be critically examined. (H2020: 4.4) research on how to organise, regulate, and incentivise the sector so as to set off its full potential as a leading actor in making transport INSTRUMENTS AND IMPLEMENTATION sustainable in a still more urbanised Europe. Radical changes are Issues of importance to strengthen effi ciency and effectiveness required to achieve the political ambitions for railways. However, the of European transport research. research in new solutions has to be conducted taking into account the political and institutional barriers in individual countries for To allow for the best minds to participate in EU-funded transport creating radically different, harmonised framework conditions and research simplifying the fi nancial and administrative rules is a in recognition of the inherent complexity of operating on the same decisive factor: shorter time to contract and reduced administrative railway tracks local, regional, and international services as well as of burdens as well as quicker acceptance of the external auditors’ balancing passenger and freight. (H2020: 4.1.2; 4.2.2; 4.4) approved methods of accountability are important. Reduced size of consortia might also be a possible recommendation, so as to •Urban public transport. Radical improvements in the quality and reduce costs and the administrative burden. cost effectiveness of urban public transport are required to achieve the 2011 Transport White Paper’s goals. At the same time, the inte- Often the exchange of disciplinary and cultural perspectives gration of transport and land-use planning must be improved. These among the researchers in large research consortium is too limited, objectives raise important questions about the organisation and which implies that research projects are too fragmented and fail to governance of urban public transport. At present there is a variety fully exploit the learning potential. To help enhance the benefi t of of approaches in Europe, ranging from comprehensive public provi- different perspectives a new criterion could be applied when the sion through private provision under contract with public authorities Commission assesses research applications, namely the establish- to a completely free market approach. The completely free market ment of research stays of various lengths among the consortium approach may offer the best approach in terms of innovation and partners according to the needs of the project. If researchers cost reduction, but by itself is unlikely to achieve a seamless public representing other institutions and countries stay for some weeks transport system or integration with land-use planning. These objec- or longer at a partner, this will contribute to interdisciplinary and tives inevitably require a degree of public intervention in the form intercultural learning, and benefi t the research carried out. of regulation or contracts. How to achieve this whilst maintaining the maximum potential for innovation and cost reduction is a key Moreover, different research institutions and a number of stakehold- research question, and answers will benefi t urban mobility and the ers are often involved in transport research projects in one way environment. (H2020: 4.1.3; 4.2.2; 4.4) or another, however sometimes at a late stage of the research process, thus implying limited value added. For transport research •A learning-oriented governance architecture. The governance of where extensive stakeholder involvement is particularly important, transport policy needs to enhance its capacity to better distinguish e.g. because stakeholders possess particularly important knowl- past accomplishments as well as failures, and to integrate such edge, an assessment criterion could be that representatives from so- experience in the identifi cation, implementation, and monitoring ciety, public administration, business and/or NGOs are involved in of future measures. This is indispensable in providing for a new the research application from the very beginning and consequently direction and in meeting the ten goals put forward in the recent contribute to formulate research questions etc. Further dialogue 2011 Transport White Paper. This approach requires the develop- throughout the research process in some cases is indispensable. ment of enhanced capacity for ex post evaluations, application of However, not all transport research applications should diagnostic indicators, identifi cation of contextual versus general be evaluated against such a criterion. Some determinants of outcomes, and the creation of strategic frameworks research may be opposed by stakeholders if for joint knowledge exchange, deliberation, verifi cation, and ap- it does not serve their interests. plication. The cultural, political and economic underpinnings for learning architectures connecting transport governance effectively to surrounding societal needs and developments are to be studied. The real role and infl uence of components such as strategic trans- port planning, performance measurement, and decision support TRANSPORT 59


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