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Access to large supercomputing facilities is needed for running DEVELOPING COST-EFFICIENT ADAPTATION the level of complex models required for predicting future climate TO CLIMATE CHANGE change and its impact on ecosystems. To obtain more reliable The development of new technologies and behavioural patterns climate scenarios at smaller spatial scales, greater effort should be are important means of mitigating climate change. However, there made regarding the development of supercomputing facilities for is also a need to develop adaptation strategies to cope with the climate change research (i.e. the climate CERN described in the changes that are inevitable, given the current level of human impact previous section). Future computer architectures will require new on the climate system. Research into the consequences of possible model development as well as training for the most effi cient use of adaptation strategies is, therefore, also important. these. Increased open access to model results will be important for impact studies and to help develop services for climate adaptation. While climate change is global, adaptation is essentially a local problem and tools that allow local decision makers to determine at DEVELOPING AND ACCESSING METHODS OF MITIGATING what level of change natural systems and societies become vulner- CLIMATE CHANGE AND RESOURCE SCARCITY able need to be developed. Adaptation strategies require the devel- It is time to consider practical solutions aimed at mitigating the opment of climate projections at spatial and temporal scales relevant impacts of climate change and resource scarcity that are inevita- for users (regional and decadal). They will also need to develop ble over the next decades. Identifying problems and solutions at integrated approaches, combining climate, impacts, and vulnerabil- all levels and scales that can be acted upon is important. Major ity aspects, to be elaborated with users. Providing information and research areas include: expertise relevant for adaptation is a challenge for research. •Quantifi cation of resources available for human consumption. Main research areas relating to adaptation include: Researchers and policymakers in concert should accomplish this assessment and the goal must be to deliver as much of the natural •Constraining critical levels of change; resources intact to future generations as possible. This research must include the issue of global population levels; •Developing interdisciplinary approaches to integrate climate, impacts, and vulnerability approaches; •Research into the means and consequences of possible mitiga- tion strategies; •Strengthening the ability of the impact community’s research results to support decision making, for example through inter-com- •Development of eco-innovation technologies that can extract parison of impact models; and use resources more effi ciently than presently possible. Wheth- er we can count on innovation to mitigate climate is an open ques- •Understanding how societies and ecosystems adapt to climate tion, but in any case eco-innovation must be encouraged; change, in particular using the past as well as experimental ap- proaches; •Designing recycling systems for key fi nite resources; •Developing co-construction approaches to adaptation with stake- •Development of alternatives for resources where demand is holders; approaching supply; •Understanding the interaction between mitigative and adaptive •Due to its non-recyclable nature, biodiversity deserves a special actions; and focus. Facilitation of the migration of species from valuable natu- ral ecosystems may be an option; and •Understanding of the costs of adaptation, taking time scales into account. •Research into the most effi cient ways of changing our shared behavioural patterns. CLIMATE 69


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