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RESEARCH ON THE UNEXPECTED Much societal decision making is based on the assumption that change happens incrementally. However, there is increasing evidence that dramatic, nonlinear events can and do occur in all types of systems. Understanding and predicting such possible developments and installing early warning systems based on this understanding are essential, provided that society is equipped to deal with such abrupt changes. Preparing society for such events also requires research. DEVELOPING NEW TECHNOLOGIES New technologies will be essential for meeting the climate and resource challenge. There is already a growing global market for technologies that improve energy effi ciency and replace fossil fuels. However, it is also anticipated that this market will expand to other types of resources. In addition to technologies devoted to improving resource effi ciency, or replacing critical resources, the overarch- ing challenge of developing sustainable societies necessitates that technologies being developed within the other challenges identifi ed in Horizon 2020, and essential to meeting those challenges (i.e. new battery technologies, desalination etc.)) must be analysed for their impact on resource use before being widely introduced. INSTRUMENTS AND IMPLEMENTATION Much knowledge on approaches for transition to a sustainable society can be gained from experimenting with different practical solutions under different societal contexts. The complexity of, for ex- ample, climate change, along with the central role of societal values and behaviour for effi cient climate action, implies that maintaining a dynamic and participatory approach is essential. Climate actions must be implemented, monitored, and subsequently evaluated in order to improve practice. This involves continuous processes of dialogue between researchers, stakeholders, decision makers, and society with the aim of changing our communal behaviour. Stake- holders must be heavily involved in the learning process based on the successes and failures from such conducted experiments. The implementation of climate change action will require our society to grow a culture of climate, ecosystem, and resource-use responsibil- ity, hence demanding extra efforts of researchers in areas of commu- nication and education. The improvement of communication abilities and platforms between researchers, decision makers, and the public is important for progress towards a sustainable society. In particular, communication to stakeholders and policymakers of estimated un- certainties on – and accuracies of – scientifi c model predictions and associated future risks is a major issue. This is especially important as political and scientifi c considerations in concert should go into deci- sions regarding the desired extent of buffer zones around predicted future scenarios in order to account for model imperfections and unanticipated impacts. Improved quality of communication 70


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