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of carbon and phosphor to maintain soil vitality. Valorisation from research institutions and industry should be pursued through new biomass must be optimised by developing and utilising smart and types of fl exible grants. Transfer of knowledge from universities to energy-effi cient processing chains, while maintaining the chemical students and companies must be made in a more effi cient way. integrity of valuable components and exploiting the highest value Public technology procurement policies could be used to shorten from each biomass component (e.g. nutraceuticals for gut health the time from research to market. improvement, food ingredients, proteins, optimised animal feed, biopolymers, fi bres, chemical feedstocks, car fuel, and, fi nally, Main criteria for selection of European projects in Horizon 2020 converting any remaining residues to biogas, electricity and heat. are scientifi c excellence, society needs and European competitive- Increasing prevalence of diet-related diseases and disorders calls ness combined with more focus on outcomes and impacts. The for a balanced health care concept more geared towards preven- composition of research consortia should give high priority to the tion. This calls for new knowledge for the development of afford- quality of partners and their openness to new partners. Openness, able and effective dietary adjustments for better health at individual dialogue, and competition are the proper values to ensure quality and population levels, with special emphasis on children’s needs and rate of progress. and the ageing population. There is an overall need to create an innovation culture where researchers, companies (especially SMEs), TRANSPORT university education, NGOs and governments (including regulatory Effi cient and sustainable transport for people and goods is vital for authorities) work closely together to increase the speed and volume Europe’s prosperity. The transport sector’s overall mission to provide of the exploitation of research and knowledge across this area. mobility is constrained by a complex set of multiple additional considerations which can be summarised in the comprehensive ENERGY concept of “environmental and societal sustainability”. The complex- Secure, clean, and effi cient energy is rightly chosen as a key focus ity of the transport (sub)-challenges urges for continuous research area in the Horizon 2020 agenda as it is essential to be able to and development and requires closer cooperation across scientifi c provide the EU with clean, reliable and affordable energy midway domains and integration across universities, research institutions and through this century. Stronger national and transnational efforts, industry than in the past. In addition, the multiple and to some extent as well as better coherence and coordination are badly needed confl icting aims for transport policy have to be taken into account between national and joint European efforts, including public- in the research strategy for every specifi c research activity. The private partnerships with all EU countries. This requires European- radical transformations of the transport sector required to achieve the scale management and support in order to: (1) enable a decisive vision of ‘smart, green and integrated transport’ call for cross-cutting contribution to climate protection; (2) achieve European technology research and research on feasible transition pathways. leadership; and to (3) give adequate support to European industry. The range of highly relevant transport research topics is broad. How- ever, there are three overriding challenges facing the development of Horizon 2020 priorities should build on: (1) a revised SET-Plan a competitive and sustainable transport system which are absolutely based on a thorough review at the beginning of Horizon 2020, crucial and particularly hard to solve and where research therefore including a critical update of the road maps based on ambitious should be prioritised as an essential part of the solutions: but realistic scenarios for the development and deployment of tech- nologies, and (2) a complementary systemic approach to combine Smart: Congestion due to overexploitation of system capacity; technological, economic, political, social and cultural research to Green: Greenhouse gas emissions from transport’s oil dependency; facilitate the transformation of the energy system as a whole. Col- Integrated: A modally divided and vulnerable transport system. laboration of social sciences and humanities with “hard sciences” must be recognised as necessary and organised and funded ac- Meeting the political challenge of both improving mobility by cordingly to meet the challenges at system level. smarter utilisation of a more integrated transport system and mak- ing it greener by radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions will More effi cient innovation programmes and new instruments are require not only technological solutions but also better understand- needed to couple educational efforts with research and innova- ing of transport behaviour and the use of innovative and effective tion to ensure that enough trained talent is available to realise the policy instruments. This calls for a more pronounced role for social ambitious roll-out scenarios for the different energy technologies, sciences than in previous Framework Programmes. In many cases and for the transformation of the energy system as a whole. Direct the effi ciency of research can also be improved by strengthening mobilisation of universities in addressing systemic challenges should the integration of scientifi c domains. be given high priority. Mobility of scientists and students among 8


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