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Such work demands on the one hand that visions are formed with Data are given meaning in discourses, which can be national, attention to real-world problems and on the other are informed sector-specifi c or disciplinary. The EU builds on this refl exive aware- by research results and theoretical understanding of the issues at ness by translating fi ndings among national discourses. We need hand. In the policy arena and in public debate, one may plead to know more about the mechanisms that make such translations for a stronger disentanglement of normative visions from analytical among nations, domains, and paradigms productive. information. A relevant and powerful research strategy for the EU would benefi t from a clearer analysis of the main challenges and •European societies are in rapid transformation. This may recent changes in general conditions for societal development. Four change previous patterns and thereby upset established correla- issues should be stressed here: (1) the new global reconfi guration tions. We therefore not only need statistical data and evidence- of power and its dynamism; (2) the fi nancial and economic crises; based lessons, but, equally so, conceptual and theoretical work (3) the transformative power of emerging technologies; and (4) the on deep shifts in the dynamics of societies. Empirical indicators necessity of handling crosscutting dynamics in relation to the other should be theoretically informed and connected to research fi ve challenges in this report. All four issues make it important to re- questions, rather than to bureaucratic agendas. Production of think and research how innovation, inclusion and security interact. Europe-wide datasets is important and highly promising. Much Research in the social sciences and humanities can contribute to more work needs to go into getting this right, as premature lock-in the political, economic, and civic development of European welfare can constrain future research. states by challenging established ways of defi ning the tasks that often refl ect the conditions of preceding periods. •This is no time for business as usual. Basic questions, that might have been taken to be answered in the past, are reopened. In a The main messages that have emerged from the process are: global knowledge economy, characterised by deep changes in the •The social sciences and humanities (SSH) have a dual contribu- international division of labour and a decreasing role of states in tion to make to Horizon 2020. The previous chapters clearly show general, why is a European level needed at all? Economies, politics, how SSH research plays an important role in solving the other and research do not follow state boundaries. In trans-governmental fi ve societal challenges. The necessary cooperation in these areas networks, Europe can play a crucial role, but not for the old reasons. raises new challenges for both natural sciences and SSH. However, A timely understanding is needed to determine what it means to it is equally important that genuine SSH research has identifi ed thrive in new forms of networks. Concretely, research programmes dramatic societal challenges in its own right. The SSH should be should be more open to non-European participants. Quality and supported in both forms. If seen solely in its fi rst-mentioned role, the innovation can only be achieved by cooperating with the best in any SSH risks being reduced to social-engineering and behaviour-ma- given fi eld. ‘European research’ should not mean research inside a nipulation – for instance, how to make people receptive to health European boundary, but Europe-centred and initiated networks. campaigns or get policymakers to agree on climate deals. There is an equal need to analyse issues where the end, and not only the •The international dimension has to be brought back in through means fall within the realm of SSH research, e.g. what models of specifi c analyses of an emerging world order. Rather than abstract a welfare state are viable under contemporary conditions, what formulations (avoiding dangers, achieving cooperation), research barriers exist to innovation in Europe, and how Europeans today should be guided towards locating specifi c challenges in the global enact politics when classical participation declines. Conversely, it is constellation, with a willingness to analyse powers and actors important to be aware of the signifi cant contributions of the natural concretely and by name (e.g. the rise of China). and medical sciences to solving problems defi ned by the SSH. •In relation to the fi ve other societal challenges, SSH scholars have a special obligation to critically investigate and foster refl ections on questions like: how did we get to these questions? A major contribu- tion of the SSH over the last two centuries has been that data are no longer viewed as objective, but as intersubjective. 76


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