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Attention should be given especially to analysing and operation- alising specifi c forms of cooperation that emerge in the era of global power dispersion and non-western powers. •Similarly, current economic woes need to be addressed squarely. Europe faces severe economic diffi culties of strong social and political import. Serious attention needs be devoted to understand- ing the sources, nature, and shape of these crises. Europe is not served by following the widespread fashion of only talking about ‘opportunities’ and ‘challenges’ when research actually can help by investigating the causes of serious problems if allowed to use ‘negative’ designations, also in specifi c research calls; •Among the many important cross-linkages to the fi ve other societal challenges are: how health both supports and is furthered by inclu- sion and innovation (and security, in a wide sense of the word); the centrality of transport and energy as infrastructures that condition the achievement of inclusive, innovative, and secure societies; and the importance of thinking climate sustainability thoroughly into all technological developments in society. •But most strongly, the whole innovation theme is a meta-issue that reappears numerous times in the other challenges, because innovation in research, technology, and usage is both discussed specifi cally, sector by sector, for the other challenges, and gener- ally, as an undertaking of societal evolution in the present chal- lenge. It will be crucial to connect and contrast knowledge about innovation that emerges ‘bottom up’ from specifi c fi elds with more generic innovation research to both optimise specifi c procedures in research and development and to adjust society in ways that generally foster innovation. Ultimately, the challenge is how to be innovative about innovation. •Protecting epistemological pluralism, the scientifi c equivalent of bio-diversity, can strengthen the robustness of results towards social changes. Funding multiple (sometimes smaller) projects is often better than huge grants to those ‘safe’ projects that all reviewers support. Real innovation and scientifi c progress typically arrive in processes that also allow failures; only they generate big winners that are really new. ‘No risk’ strategies are counter-productive. •Evaluation criteria and processes must be adjusted to secure mul- ti-disciplinarity. General principles only get translated into actual projects if concrete scoring systems for evaluation overcome the documented structural bias against inter-disciplinarity. Since this has to be done in a manner that ensures quality and academic standards, innovative assessment systems have to be designed. SOCIETIES 77


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