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•Open calls, and calls with different degrees of specifi cation, should insights have to be integrated from far more disciplines than hitherto be included. Detailed specifi cation of calls overreaches the ability achieved. Comparative case studies would help to identify barriers to predict the future. When new developments like the Arab Spring and solutions. Variations among sectors, regions, and company struc- occur during an FP period, it should be possible to initiate research. tures are among the important variables where Europe’s diversity can be better exploited as providing a laboratory. The Chinese techno- •Improved framework conditions – as now promised – have to be cratic regime runs whole regions as tests. For many reasons, this will defended against predictable attempts to strengthen control sys- likely not be the European way, but existing variations can be much tems. High quality should be the main criteria. Increased simplifi ca- better used as sources of information and learning. tion and trust in researchers and academic institutions are needed. Results matter more than multiple indicators and deliverables. • The welfare state must be reinvented. It is a basic European characteristic and for many: a key value. But the present crisis has •Innovation can be achieved by embedding the ‘problem defi ni- shown that the current European growth model is not sustainable. tion’ with societal actors, citizens, and communities – not limited to Taking into account the seriousness of recent crises in fi nancial the top-down agendas of policymakers and business elites. capitalism and the fact that economies increasingly are driven by fi nancial market concerns such as the debt crises and the Euro, the NEEDS AND SOLUTIONS political and economic causes of, not only the crises as such, but also The Horizon 2020 proposal identifi es important societal chal- the increasing socio-economic inequalities and tensions along lines lenges, to which the social sciences and humanities can contribute. of class, geography, ethnicity, gender and generation need to be At this point, the structure of the proposal – separating innovation, addressed. Reform of existing welfare and social-security arrange- inclusion and security – blocks the view to even larger challenges ments will necessarily produce winners and losers on a grand scale. that cut across these issues. Some of the more pressing are: Analyses therefore have to go beyond the technical – to a broader examination of interconnected social, economic, and political altera- •Cultures of innovation and openness need cultivation at many lay- tions. Many disciplines, from economic history and comparative ers from individual to European. Europe often produces inventions, institutionalism to macro-sociology, can enrich the understanding of but misses out in innovation phases, either of commercialisation or options and constraints. A general restructuring of rights and duties uptake by users, consumers, and citizens. Psychologists have identi- is on the agenda, and could easily amount to a general rethinking of fi ed a general culture or attitude of defensiveness and the cultivation ‘labour’. The comprehensiveness of this challenge makes it manda- of a more open, transformational attitude as a way of being is a tory that it be examined in interdisciplinary and innovative teams, complex, many-layered challenge for Europe. Large investments not only across many disciplines within the SSH but also taking into in knowledge generation do not lead automatically to economic account the numerous links to the other fi ve panels. growth, because barriers to commercialising research may exist. Knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship particulary of SMEs represents • Politics is being recreated in new forms. Throughout Europe, an effective transformative mechanism that can break old barriers and political participation has waned and mistrust to political institutions convert new knowledge into economic activity. Furthermore, Europe and elites is prevalent. If locked into currently dominant images of has to foster demand-led innovation. An increase in demand-led politics, politics seems to disappear. Confronted with the fi nancial innovation means involving industrial users, consumers and clients crisis, some member states even move to technocratic cabinets, and more in the innovation process and increasing the role that they citizens wonder about national sovereignty, vis-à-vis demands from play in stimulating innovations and new ideas. This could contribute international political organs, impersonal ‘markets,’ and transna- to realising the enormous potential European researchers have by tional agencies. Yet, simultaneously new forms of involvement and providing clearly defi ned societal goals and an effi cient cooperation political judgement occur for instance in social media; and collec- platform to facilitate exchanges and collaboration. However, the vari- tive self-monitoring and steering takes place in networks and expert ety in demand articulation requires that the demand for knowledge systems, where contestation and deliberation is performed but not not be left to private industry and/or government agencies as macro- in forms normally recognised as legitimate. This research challenge actors, but be democratised and diversifi ed further. A rhetoric of too is multi-dimensional, because we need to get back to basic ‘readiness for change’ has been around for years, happily embraced “components” of politics such as: participation, legitimacy, contesta- by leaders in business and politics, but rarely has this been taken as tion, and collective governance – both rethinking and experiment- an opportunity for scientifi cally based stuctural adjustment and more ing with new ways to enact these. Tensions increase between often as an opportunity to moralise. Scientifi c knowledge already national and European governance and global economic, political, goes far beyond the slogans of pundits and management gurus; but and civic processes. The social sciences, as well as public policy, 78


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