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scientists to go beyond the borders of their national statistics and address border-crossing issues concerning innovation, inclusion, and security production, access to empirical data concerning a wide range of social scientifi c and humanistic issues should be underpinned through a common, European data strategy. Few, if any, would dismiss the importance of technology in setting the scene for an integrated European research area as well as for the way the social sciences and humanities relate to society and political processes. To also serve a social purpose, technology should be linked to the advancement of civic education projects designed to further involvement of citizens. New technologies can provide new opportunities in the collection of empirical mate- rial about current transformations and it can also be utilised to develop new ways of disseminating knowledge and entering into public discussion for the SSH. A necessary element of “inclusive, innovative and secure societies” is to give scholars the opportunity to develop their methodologies (which can be based on new technology) in order to produce new research results. Researchers should explicitly acknowledge and analyse the tensions between confl icting aims and principles. SSH research holds the potential to expose the hard tradeoffs, policy dilemmas, and both intended and unintended effects of existing and proposed policies. Technologies and methodologies should be developed in some areas with the explicit understanding that they function as a road to refl exivity at the European level. Issues such as inclusion, creativity, and the increased attention paid in the security fi eld to emergency management point to the need to clarify how these guiding catego- ries are produced and negotiated. There is clearly strong variation across Europe in terms of what forms of inclusion are emphasised, what counts as creativity, and what the threshold is for defi ning emergencies. An important role for the social sciences and humani- ties is generally to foster self-refl ection on processes of this nature, but in the case of Europe there is an added need to Europeanise this refl exivity to clarify how the constant negotiation of powerful categories is increasingly a negotiation at the European level. An important – and novel – research agenda concerns the interaction between the capacity for communication/translation among sub- systems (such as science and the economy, intelligence agencies and parliaments) and among nations. INSTRUMENTS AND IMPLEMENTATION Careful attention to the involvement of stakeholders in research should be attended to closely from the start; for example, to the actors who play a relevant role in an innovation system and those who could be included in a policy framework. This in turn will also 80


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