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Technological innovation will still be of paramount importance CLIMATE as development of novel and more effi cient technologies will be With the global population currently at 7 billion and projected to pivotal for reaching the main European transport policy goals: be at least 9 billion by 2050, not to mention increasing per capita •Cleaner and safer vehicles for all modes; consumption, the human demand for the Earth’s natural resources •Cost-effective alternative fuels, (electric) drives, propulsion has never been larger. With this human pressure on the Earth’s technologies, battery and chemical storage of energy and new living ecosystems (e.g. biodiversity) and abiotic resources (e.g. rare materials for vehicle construction; Earth metals), the establishment of mechanisms for intra- and inter- •Advanced ICT for personalised real-time travel information with generational sharing of essential natural resources becomes the modal integration, metropolitan traffi c management and smart pay- greatest challenge to the continued development of all human socie- ment systems; ties. The primary role of research in developing these mechanisms to highlight a few exceedingly important areas which will require must be to provide the knowledge necessary to underpin sound massive investments in R&D&I towards 2020 and beyond. and responsible decision making. Input from all research disciplines is necessary to provide this knowledge. While the ultimate goal Apart from greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions the majority of the of research relating to this challenge is to sustain societal develop- negative impacts from transport occur in and around major urban ar- ment, at the heart of research focusing on developing more respon- eas where the majority and an increasing share of Europe’s popula- sible use of natural resources must also be the development of an tion live. This calls for intensifi ed research in the challenges related to understanding of societal transformation processes. A large global urban mobility. A signifi cant change of modal split away from cars is market is anticipated for technologies and processes that improve necessarily an essential part of the solution. This will also make cities the effi ciency of resource use and/or that can provide substitutes for more liveable, but it will require both sticks and carrots to achieve, natural resources under pressure. However, transition to sustainable e.g. urban road pricing schemes accompanied by more competitive resource use will also require a change in values and thinking. One public transport and facilities for cycling and walking. important contribution Horizon 2020 can make to these processes is to provide means whereby scientists from different academic Expectations for increasingly scarce funding for infrastructure fi elds are brought together to address possible transitions and how improvements highlights the need for cross-modal integration as a to achieve them. means to improve overall effi cient and sustainable mobility rather than effectiveness at modal level. Further development and imple- Climate change constitutes one of the most urgent global resource mentation of concepts such as door-to-door mobility, seamless con- challenges facing society, where the resource in question is our nectivity, and global interoperability can contribute to more customer- common atmospheric receptacle for the greenhouse gas wastes oriented services. In the future, transport may be more vulnerable to of society. Development of actions and strategies for dealing with extreme events, and this calls for research in resilient systems. this challenge can, potentially, provide models for dealing with resource scarcity issues coming on line (biodiversity, ecosystem Finally, traffi c is still responsible for a death toll in the EU of about services, water, phosphorous, ores and metals etc.). A general 35,000 annually and many more serious injuries. Hence, in spite of paradigm for dealing with resource scarcity is reducing the need dramatic improvements in traffi c safety over the last four decades, for – and more effi cient use of – the resource, combined with the substantial research efforts are still indispensable. Reaching the adaptation of human activities to changed conditions and/or the ‘close to zero’ vision will require a paradigm shift toward a holistic recognition of resource scarcity. In dealing with resource scarcity in system approach. general, and climate in particular, a major challenge is to channel the knowledge gained on the mechanisms of the Earth’s system into A substantial part of the chapter on transport is devoted to present- political and societal action. This requires cross-disciplinary and in- ing a number of highly important yet indicative research topics terdisciplinary approaches that integrate the research conducted in organised under the following three headings: Mobility – behaviour many fi elds within the natural sciences with that conducted in other and modelling; Balancing demand and capacity; and Governance, disciplines (including engineering, statistics, social science, and fi nancing and organisation. The goal has been to also inspire the humanities) to provide solution-oriented results to decision makers. subsequent work with implementing Horizon 2020 in future work programmes and calls. 9


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