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Resource scarcity is a global issue, although it is not experienced to carefully attending to the cross-cutting themes within this broad the same extent everywhere and not all regions enjoy the research challenge (which de facto covers most of the social sciences and a infrastructure necessary to support good decision-making. There- good deal of the humanities, plus some informatics, etc.) as well as fore, regions such as the EU that rely strongly on resources from all formulating some currently still absent linkages to other challenges. parts of the world and have well-developed research capacities, should not limit their research activities to their own geographical The Horizon2020 proposal tries to achieve coherence and integra- regions. Existing knowledge on the causes of climate change, for tion on the research agenda by narrowing the focus towards “hard” example, provides a suffi cient basis for society to act immediately technologies, especially statistics, assessments and measures of on reducing potential human interference with the climate system. effi ciency (evidence-based lessons). It shows a corresponding Such knowledge is also being further developed for other aspects tendency towards a somewhat technocratic defi nition of the nature of the declining resource base. Therefore, the focus in Horizon of challenges (e.g. in the security part, critical infrastructure protec- 2020 should be to underpin decisions designed to increase the tion is prioritized over international politics). Indeed, inclusion- effi ciency and impact of the societal response. This will, however, innovation-security can be viewed from a technocratic angle and include research on the climate and other resource systems in order the relevant form of knowledge be generated around data and effi - to better understand systemic interactions, the collection of baseline ciency assessments, but this represents a limited political and social information, and the establishment of monitoring activities to assess vision that underestimates the power of citizens and communities to the effi cacy of different mitigation and adaptation approaches. contribute to the realisation of inclusion, innovation and security. SOCIETIES Corresponding to a vision comprising a broader mobilisation of so- The focus on ‘inclusive, innovative and secure societies’ provides cietal energies are forms of research that employ a wider selection a highly welcome challenge to the social sciences and humanities of methodologies and theories to study the dynamics of society as (SSH). This societal challenge is well justifi ed not only because productive and generative, rather than as the site of problems to be these qualities are particularly vital for future European society, solved. Society must become the solution. Europe faces dramatic but as importantly, because the relationship between these three challenges that cut across established fi elds: creating cultures and characteristics is crucial and hitherto understudied. Inclusion, in- mentalities of openness and innovation, reinventing the welfare- novation and security are frequently studied by separate research state, recreating politics and handling new lines of inequality and communities (and similarly politically addressed independent of one diversity within Europe. Research needs to go beyond technical another), but already existing research in these various fi elds sup- questions to more controversial areas like global power shifts, port the premise that they are closely linked. Some links are based sources of the economic crises and malaises affecting political on synergies, where, say, inclusion and security are important participation, legitimation and self-steering. In such times of deep conditions for innovation, or growth through innovation can enable change, not all statistical relationships will remain stable, and Euro- further inclusion and security. At other points, tensions can be iden- pean social knowledge therefore needs both improved databases tifi ed, e.g. when some forms of innovation or security potentially and theoretical work. The social sciences and humanities can play marginalise certain groups and thus reduce inclusion. key roles in relation to both the other fi ve grand challenges and the signifi cant ones, they have identifi ed themselves. It is particularly In response to the existing proposal of the Commission, the present important that researchers in the SSH engage scholars in the hard report aims to show how it is possible to pursue a focused strategy sciences in a joint effort to cultivate research-based innovation more consistently and ambitiously. As currently presented, a consid- regarding the way expertise and democracy interact. erable risk remains that this challenge of ‘inclusive, innovative and secure societies’ will become at best the three sub-challenges of ‘inclusion’, ‘innovation’ plus ‘security’, with the potential for further disintegrating into separate topics (calls). Integrating them demands 10


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